Sunday, April 26, 2015

Make It Sourdough - Gluten Free Sourdough Clementine Muffins

Using Clementines

 Clementines don't last long once you buy them. They have to be eaten within a few days.  I was looking for recipes that included clementines and then there was this recipe --- for Clementine Cake. It has bombed the internet and there are many, many versions of the cake.

If the recipes for Clementine Cake are checked out, many of the recipes seem to originate from Nigella Lawson on Food Network cake recipe.  The cake recipe can be gluten free because it calls for  ground almonds for the flour. I could have made it with almond flour, but I thought I might be able to use the clementine puree in sourdough quick bread.

Can the clementines be substituted for tangerines or oranges? Clementines, mandarins or tangerines are all in the same family. Several sources state that tangerines, mandarins, and oranges can be substituted for clementines. Make sure to check for seeds and if the oranges are larger than clementines,  use only 1/2 to 3/4 of the whole orange when making the puree.

Nigella boils her clementines before she uses them in a recipe. I was wondering how she knew to do that and why she did that. I searched why the clementines are boiled first. Seems that boiling several times removes the bitter flavor from the rind. Supposedly, cooking them creates a wonderful smell in the kitchen but I didn't notice it that much. It does soften them. When I cut them in half to put them in the processor, they were very soft. The clementines form a puree very quickly and it smells wonderfully.

Boiling the Clementines
Checking for seeds in the boiled clementines

Clementine Puree

Making the Muffins

I made the muffins the same way I make all the sourdough muffins. I add the dry ingredients to the sponge.  The liquid ingredients, including the clementine puree, are combined in another bowl. The dry and wet ingredients are then thoroughly combined.

The modifications for this recipe are the same as for the sourdough morning glory muffins. Seed dust is used rather than xanthan gum. If you would rather use

Applesauce is substituted for half the oil or butter. If a lower sugar content is wanted, Stevia in the Raw can be substituted for half the sugar and Splenda brown sugar blend can be substituted for brown sugar. If you have no applesauce, use 1/4 cup butter or oil of choice.

Other additions can be used in this recipe. Besides cinnamon, other spices could be ginger, nutmeg, mint, cilantro, and basil. I'm not a cilantro nor mint fan, but some people would love it. Other additions to the batter could be chocolate chips, chopped figs, pineapple or berries.

A sugar/cinnamon mixture can be added to the top. Brush with butter and sprinkle on top.
The mini muffins are baked about 15 minutes.

Sourdough Clementine Muffins

Sourdough Sponge:
1 cup (~200 grams) active sourdough starter
1 1/2 cup (183 grams) gluten free flour blend
1 tablespoon (21.25 grams) honey
1/3 cup(118 g) water, milk (122g) or whey

3 clementines puree  (see directions below)
2 tablespoons (20 grams) seed dust with psyllium
1 teaspoon (4 grams) cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon (3 grams) baking soda
1 1/2 teaspoon (8 grams) baking powder
1 egg, lightly beaten
2 tablespoons melted butter (or olive oil)
2 tablespoons unsweetened applesauce
3 tablespoons honey
3 tablespoon brown sugar
1/4 cup seedless raisins or currents
1/4 cup shredded coconut


Combine sourdough starter, gluten free flour blend, water and honey. Mix with whisk for 1-2 minutes. Place in a warm place for 7-12 hours to bubble, rise and form a sponge. (I usually put it over a bowl of warm water in the microwave (and heat the water, not the sponge, every couple of hours).

Cover the clementines in water in a saucepan. (They will float.) Bring to a boil, turn down heat and simmer for 15 minutes. Drain the hot water (carefully). Cover the clementines again and simmer for another 15 minutes. Drain and cool. Cut the clementines in half in a bowl (they are soft and juicy) and remove all seeds, if any. Puree the clementines in a food processor. Do not process to the stage of a juice. Very small pieces of peel should be seen in the puree.

When the batter has bubbled and formed a sourdough sponge, preheat the oven to 350℉. Place paper cups in a muffin pan and spray bottoms of cups with non-stick spray. If using only the muffin tin, spray only the bottom of the muffins cups.

Sprinkle the seed dust, cinnamon, salt, baking soda and baking powder on the sponge. Whisk in the dry ingredients. In a small bowl, beat egg, melted butter, clementine puree and honey together. Combine the wet ingredients and dry ingredients, forming a thick batter.

Fold in raisins, coconut and/or any other ingredients wanted.

With ice cream scoop, scoop batter into each cup. Fill each cup 3/4 to almost full. Bake for 25-30 minutes. Before 25 minutes are up, test with toothpick. Muffins are done when the toothpick inserted near the center comes out clean.

Move the muffins to a cooling rack so that the muffins do not sweat. Cool for a few minutes. Serve warm with butter or cream cheese, if you like. Serve within a couple days, for gluten free muffins dry out quickly.

The muffins freeze well in a plastic zip bag. Cool completely before freezing. Warm 15 seconds in microwave.

Makes 12 large muffins or 15 medium. (Time above is for medium size. Large size will require longer time.)


"All About Oranges." N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015. <>.

"Clementines/Satsumas and Substitutes | Kitchen Queries | Nigella Lawson." Clementines/Satsumas and Substitutes | Kitchen Queries | Nigella Lawson. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015. <>.

"5 Ways to Cook with Oranges, Tangerines, and Clementines." Rodale News. N.p., 14 Dec. 2009. Web. 26 Apr. 2015. <>.

"Flavor Profiles That Pair Together in Recipes - Nouveau RawNouveau Raw." Flavor Profiles That Pair Together in Recipes - Nouveau RawNouveau Raw. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015. <>.

"Grown in California." Grown in California. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015. <>

Gruss, MS Teri. "Using Xanthan Gum and Guar Gum in Gluten-Free Recipes." N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015. <>.

"How to Sliver and Remove Bitterness from Orange Peel." My Persian Kitchen. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015. <>.

"Is There a Good Substitute for Clementines in a Recipe? |" N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2015. <>.

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Gluten Free Flour Blends

Being Gluten Free & Gluten Free Flour Blends

Being gluten free now is certainly not a blessing but I'm pretty sure that it is easier now to be gluten free than 10, 15 or 20 years ago. There are so many gluten free products out there, though some are not so healthy. Reading labels is so important. As with some gluten products, some gluten free products are full of sugar and fat to make them taste better. Some of the gluten free flours are not nutritious, either. So, why are they used so much commercially, if they aren't so good for you? Some of the gluten free flours, such as rice, are less expensive.

Some gluten free whole grains are very nutritious. The gluten free whole grains have different properties, flavors or tastes . That would be a reason to use the many different gluten free whole grains, such as amaranth, quinoa, teff, sorghum, millet, gluten free oat flour but not limited to these. (There are others).

Using Starches in Gluten Free Flours

Usually, gluten free whole grain flours cannot be used by themselves. They need starches to help make the flour lighter and more fluffy. The starches also help to bind ingredients together. For that reason, we usually use a gluten free flour blend of flours and starches. The blend helps the flours to have a near property of wheat flour. Some different blends will have slight properties of all-purpose wheat flour and some will have slight properties of whole wheat flour. Prepare to accept the fact that no gluten free flour will taste, have the same texture, will behave nor will bind ingredients as well as gluten containing flours. Using a good gluten free blend might come close, though.

Using Hydrocolloids as Binders for Gluten Free Flours

In gluten flours, gluten act as a frame to hold in the leavening gases. It is the gas (carbon dioxide) which gives batters and doughs a light and airy interior. The gases also help to give a nice tender crumb. Gluten free flours, by themselves,  do not have the frame.

Now, a substance, called a hydrocolloid, which acts like gluten must be used. The hydrocolloid helps the gluten free flour act like wheat flour, giving it flexibility and binding properties. The hydrocolloids help hold the gases in the batters or doughs. They do not have to be added to stored gluten free blends because not all recipes need the binding substances. The hydrocloloid can be added while mixing the batter. Some of the binding hypocolloids could be flaxseed meal, chia seed/meal, ground psyllium, xanthan gum  or guar gum. Many people have digestive systems that do not tolerate xanthan gum.

I make a special hypocolloid called seed dust and it works very nicely as a binder for gluten free flour blends.  (It is more nutritious than gums. Gums have almost no nutritional value.) I thank Dr. Jean Layton for teaching me about the seed dust. The seed dust, which contains ground flaxseed, ground chia and ground psyllium, has lots of fiber and is more nutritional than gums. I add the seed dust when making a recipe that needs a hydrocolloid and never add it to the stored gluten free flour blend. The flaxseeds, flaxseed meal, chia seeds or chia meal needs to be stored in the freezer to help increase storage life. I usually make about a cup at a time using a coffee grinder. Most recipes call for 1-2 tablespoons of the seed dust, though, some bakers successfully use only ground psyllium as a binder. I find unflavored gluten free psyllium fiber at drug stores such as CVS, Rite-Aid, and Walgreens.  I have found their gluten free brand of the unflavored gluten free psyllium for a good price. Make sure that it states gluten free so that there is no cross-contamination. And, of course, the gluten free psyllium can be found online.

I decided that the light doughs needed a lighter color of seed dust. I ordered the white chia seeds to make the seed dust. The seed dust made from the white chia is not that much lighter, even when using golden flaxseed. The white chia seed costs several dollars more a pound than the dark. I'm still not sure that the white chia seed is worth the cost.

The seed dust made from white chia seed on the left is only a
slight lighter shade than the seed dust made from dark chia seed on the right.

My Favorite Gluten Free Flour Blends (and a commercial blend that might correlate)

I choose to use several different gluten-free flour blends which I grind and blend myself. I usually don't buy commercial flour blends because most of them use rice flours and the ones I do like the best are expensive. My blends do not have white rice flour, sweet rice flour nor brown rice flour. (Reason #1 and reason #2 can be found at these sites.) It's good to be informed and make the decisions for yourself.


Linda's Gluten Free All-Purpose Flour Blend

1 1/2 (180 g)  cups oat flour
1 cup (123 g) sorghum flour
1 1/2 cups (188 g) cup tapioca flour
1/2 cup (58 g) corn flour (masa harina)

549 / 4.5 ~  122 grams/cup

Whisk together and put in an airtight container.

I use this flour blend when making anything calling for all-purpose flour blend. Rules for using xanthin gum can be found here. If using seed dust, use one rounded tablespoon for each 1/2 teaspoon of xanthan gum. I generally use about 1/2 tablespoon seed dusr for each cup of flour blend.

Use this flour for cakes, muffins and cookies or any recipe call for a gluten-free all-purpose flour blend..  If you add 1 1/2 teaspoon baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt to the all-purpose flour blend, it can be used as self-rising flour blend. It can be used for any recipe calling for baking powder, including muffins, scones, biscuits, cakes, etc.

Betty Hagan has a blend very similar to Linda's GF All-purpose Flour Blend. A commerical flour blend that is relatively close to this oat/sorghum blend is ( ----blank-----).  Haven't found but one yet without rice flour.

If you are sensitive to oats or oat flour, then make substitutions. Substitute the oat flour for millet or rice flour, if you like to use rice flour. It is best to substitute by weight. When making substitutions, the property of the flour blend will change. Sometimes slight changes in weight might have to be made with substitutions to get the results you want. Sometimes patience is needed to make the changes.

Try the Jule's Gluten Free All Purpose Flour Blend. Jules' commercial gluten free all-purpose flour blend contains modified tapioca starch, potato starch, corn starch, corn flour, white rice flour and xanthan gum. In the April/May 2015  magazine Living Without's Gluten Free & More (p. 61), Jules included this recipe for an all-purpose flour blend. The flour in parentheses is the flour or starch I use when making this blend.  This is a nice versatile recipe for a gluten free blend. There is something there for everyone, unless no grains are wanted. (That --- later). Notice that her recipe has changed in the last few months. Read her story.

Jules' Gluten Free All-Purpose Flour Blend

1 cup cornstarch, tapioca starch or arrowroot powder (cornstarch)
1 cup potato starch, tapioca starch or arrowroot powder (tapioca starch)
1 cup very fine white rice flour, sorghum flour or buckwheat flour (sorghum flour or buckwheat flour)
½ cup corn flour, millet flour, sorghum flour or brown rice flour (millet flour)
½ cup tapioca starch, cornstarch or arrowroot powder  (would substitute for the corn flour)
4 teaspoons xanthan gum or guar gum     (would use seed dust when making product)

Jules' Gluten Free Flour Blend can be bought (with the rice flour) commercially. It is not as nutritious as her blend above because there are no whole grains.

Update: November 2015

I have found that the best combination of Jules's flour blend above is arrowroot, potato starch, sorghum, buckwheat, and tapioca, in that order from above. It makes a wonderful bread or dinner rolls. Once I make it, I keep it in the refrigerator for at least 12 hours to develop flavor.


Linda's High Protein Gluten Free Flour Blend

2 cups (246grams) sorghum flour
3 cups (360 grams) oat flour
1 ½ cups (255 grams) potato starch
½ cup (63 grams) tapioca flour
½ cup (60 grams) amaranth flour
½ cup (60 grams) quinoa flour

High protein flours could include quinoa flour, coconut flour, amaranth flour, teff flour, chia flour, bean flour, pea flour, oat flour, sorghum flour, buckwheat, and nut flours. A high protein gluten free flour blend works best for breads, muffins, pancakes, waffles, and some cookies.  Some of these gliten free flours have a strong taste and need to be used in small amounts. This flour blend might not work best for delicate recipes such as cakes and cupcakes and some sugar cookies.

A commercial high protein gluten free flour blend similar to this high protein blend might be Bob's Red Mill All-Purpose Baking. It contains bean flours ( fava & garbanzo), potato starch, tapioca starch/flour, and white sorghum flour. (Sorghum flour can be white, red, yellow, orange or brown and many colors inbetween). It is difficult to find a high protein, gluten-free, all-purpose flour blend which is white without white and/or brown rice flour.

A grain free high protein gluten free flour blend is possible. It is discussed in a minute.


Whole Grain Gluten Free Flour Blend

My favorite blend is a whole grain blend which I actually use the most. My inspiration for this blend came from Shauna James Ahern's website. She explains her 70%whole grains/30% starches for a gluten free flour blend. There are other sites that like 60%/40% gluten free whole grain flour blends. The 60/40 flour blend can be 60% grains and 40% starches or 60% starches and 40% whole grains. The blend with 60% starches would have a higher glycemic index -- not good for diabetics.

This whole grain flour blend can be used to make pie crust, wraps, breads, cookies, crackers,   I have used this blend to make "graham" crackers. This blend makes a terrific gluten-free "WheatThins" cracker!

Linda's Gluten Free Whole Grain Flour Blend

70% Whole Grain Flours

200 g ( 1 2/3 cup) oat flour
50 g (about 1/2 cup) millet flour
100 g (about 1 cup) quinoa flour
100 g (3/4 c + 3 tb) sorghum flour
50 g bean (about 1/2 c) (fava & northern)
50 g (1/4 c + 2tb) corn flour (masa harina)
50 g (1/4 c + 2tb) amaranth flour
50 g (1/4 c + 2tb) teff flour
50 g (1/4 c + 2tb) buckwheat flour

30% Starches

100g (3/4 c) tapioca flour
100 g (3/4 + 3 tb) corn starch
100 g (3/4 + 2tb) c + potato starch

All the different flours give the blend a distinct purpose and property.  If you don't like using all the different flours, rather than use quinoa and sorghum flour, use just 200 g of one of them.  If you don't want to use corn flour, amaranth flour, teff flour and buckwheat flour, choose 200 g of one of them. I feel that the bean flour is important because it gives the dough elasticity. There are many combinations that can be used in this flour blend that will work. Each combination will give the blend a different taste and properties. (Property is a chemistry word for characteristic -- the teacher still exists).

I do not apologize for giving the ingredients in grams. It is the easiest and more accurate way to measure. I know -- I know --- I fought it for a time, but once I bought that digital scale for the kitchen, I wondered why I waited so long. Of course it probably was easier for me to convert since I had been using a metric scale in the chemistry class for years. We all have a hard time changing our ways. It's part of life's journey.

Maninis Ancient Grains Multi-Purpose Flour Mix is very close to Linda's  70/30 Whole Grain Flour Blend. It contains millet flour, tapioca flour, teff flour, sorghum flour, amaranth flour, corn starch, can sugar, xantha;n gum and sea salt. It is expensive because gluten free whole grains are more expensive -- but, they are better for your body and much more nutritious.


Gluten Free High Fiber, High Protein, Grain Free Flour Blend

1 cup banched almond meal (almond skins removed)
1/2 cup coconut flour
1/2 cup arrowroot starch or tapioca starch

Many gluten free bloggers give this recipe for a gluten free, grain free flour blend, but very few of them seem to use it. Many won't give out their recipes using this flour blend because they are trying to sell their cookbooks. Some gluten free bakers state that this flour blend can be substituted for flour in any recipe. I don't find that to be true.

This blend is also great used to bread meat. I used it to bread paleo chicken nuggets.

I tried using it in a recipe substituting the above flour blend for muffins using a quinoa flour blend and the amount of liquid didn't work. I needed to add an egg and more liquid. That seems to be the general rule for using coconut and almond flours. I experimented with this recipe for what I call Everything Muffins and it worked with a little tweak of the amount of liquid. There are more suggestions for using this flour blend at the muffin post. The muffins did turn out great -- moist and full of flavor.

Final Statement on Gluten Free Flour Blends

I've always thought that moderation was the key term to use in making choices.  Reading on the net you can see, all the blends have pros and cons for using them. Every blend will have problems in using it. The flour blends with grains, nuts, seeds and beans have the phytate problem, as well as coconut.   The rice flour blends have the arsenic, high glycemic index problems and lower nutritional value. There is a problem with polyunsaturated fatty acids in almond flour.

Some of the flours are cost prohibitive to many people. Milling your own grains can bring the cost down. A mill will eventually pay for itself but this blogger uses other equipment. It doesn't take a great deal of time to mill the grouts, grains or seeds, especially with a home mill. Doing the milling outside creates less clean-up time because many of the mills puff flour in the air. Also, most mills are very loud. There are many different types and brands of home mills; mine is a Blendtec and I like it, though it is one that puffs flour.

Again, moderation in using any gluten free flour blend is important. Any health concern, which I am unable to give advice, should be taken up with medical advicers. Reading and research are important. So make your choices regarding the flour blends which are important in regard to your health, finances and availability.


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Shepard, Jules. "Jules' Homemade Gluten-Free All-Purpose Flour Blend." Living Without's Gluten Free & More 18.5 (2015): 61. Web. 1 Apr. 2015. <>.

Disclosure statement: I have not received any kind of compensation for any products mentioned or used in this post.

Thursday, April 2, 2015

Everything Grain Free Muffins

Using Coconut and Almond Flours

These muffins came from an experiment using a grain free flour blend. There is a grain free flour blend, with slight variations, on several websites. Some of the bakers who include this grain free flour blend of coconut flour and almond flour, have no recipes for the blend on their website.  Some have no recipes but are selling cookbooks using the flour blend and some have a few recipes using this grain free flour blend. Some state that this flour blend can be substituted cup for cup for wheat flour or other gluten free flour blends. NOT! 

Some use this blend without the use of the arrowroot or starch. Starch in any blend adds lightness and fluffiness to the blend. It seems that fewer eggs or less liquid is need if a starch is used.

Coconut flour needs more eggs and more liquid than other blends. The general rule from Tropical Traditions is 4-5 eggs for every cup of coconut flour. The eggs are needed as a binder. Fewer eggs can be used if almond flour or starch is used. Using flaxseed or seed dust can reduce the number of eggs needed. Tropical Traditions states that even the rule can be adjusted with the addition of other binding ingredients such as a liquid sweetener. A list of liquid sweeteners can be found here. There are many choices.

Tropical Traditions states that using coconut flour may take time and patience. Experience using the blend will give a feel of how the batter should feel and look and how much liquid is needed to get the right texture. Each brand of almond flour and coconut flour will be slightly different. Do not be afraid to experiment. To prevent waste in experimentingwith a recipe, cut the recipe in 1/4 or 1/2. 

The "Everything" Muffin

The reason I call them "everything muffins" is the need to use up some "everything" ingredients in my kitchen: half an apple, a few carrots in the bottom of the bag, half a zucchini, 1/2 very ripe banana, 1 cup of frozen blueberries almost at freezer burn, and some currents that need to be used. Time to try out a new recipe because there isn't much to lose. If it works, nothing is wasted! 

Any of the "everything" ingredients can be eliminated or other "everything" ingredients can be added, such as, nuts, seeds, cranberry, dates, figs, pumpkin, etc. I'm sure that you can think of many others.

I found that the muffins need to sit and cool before serving. They will hold together better and have a better texture after cooling. They will fall apart when hot or warm. While baking, the muffins may need to be tented with aluminum foil because they may brown too fast before they complete baking. Found this out through experience. There are some good hints for baking with allmond and coconut flours at this siteThis site has a few recipes for using this flour blend.

Grain Free Flour Blend

1 cup blanched almond meal (the almond skins removed)
1/2 cup coconut flour
1/2 cup arrowroot starch or tapioca starch

Everything Grain Free Muffins
2 cups Paleo Flour Blend
2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon cinnamon
3 tablespoons butter, melted
3/4 - 1 cup milk
1 teaspoon vanilla
1/3 cup honey
2 teaspoons sugar or equvilent of sugar substitute of choice
1/2 cup grated carrot
1/2 cup grated zucchini
1/4 cup grated apple
1/2 mashed banana
1 cup blueberries (fresh or frozen unthawed)
1/4 cup currents or raisins

Preheat the oven to 350℉. Spray paper cups or spray the muffin pan.

Whisk the flours, salt, baking powder, baking soda and cinnamon together.  

Mix the honey, butter, milk and eggs together.  Mix into the dry ingredients, adding more milk if necessary to make a typical muffin batter. Fold in remaining ingredients.

Bake 30-35 minutes. When toothpick in center of muffin comes out clean, the muffins are done. Check at 25-30 minutes. Tent with aluminum foil if necessary to keep tops from over-browning.


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